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Spencer was primarily a Lamarckian evolutionist; hence, fitness could be acquired in a single generation and thus in no way did "survival of the fittest" as a tenet of Darwinian evolution predate it. Another of these interpretations, later known as eugenics , was put forth by Darwin's cousin, Francis Galton , in and Galton argued that just as physical traits were clearly inherited among generations of people, so could be said for mental qualities genius and talent.

Galton argued that social mores needed to change so that heredity was a conscious decision, to avoid over-breeding by "less fit" members of society and the under-breeding of the "more fit" ones. In Galton's view, social institutions such as welfare and insane asylums were allowing "inferior" humans to survive and reproduce at levels faster than the more "superior" humans in respectable society, and if corrections were not soon taken, society would be awash with "inferiors.

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Neither Galton nor Darwin, though, advocated any eugenic policies such as those undertaken in the early 20th century, as government coercion of any form was very much against their political opinions. Darwin's views on sexual selection were opposed strongly by his co-discoverer of natural selection, Alfred Russel Wallace , though much of his "debate" with Darwin took place after Darwin's death. Wallace argued against sexual selection, saying that the male-male competition aspects were simply forms of natural selection , and that the notion of female mate choice was attributing the ability to judge standards of beauty to animals far too cognitively undeveloped to be capable of aesthetic feeling such as beetles.

Wallace also argued that Darwin too much favoured the bright colours of the male peacock as adaptive without realising that the "drab" peahen 's coloration is itself adaptive, as camouflage. Wallace more speculatively argued that the bright colours and long tails of the peacock were not adaptive in any way, and that bright coloration could result from non-adaptive physiological development for example, the internal organs of animals, not being subject to a visual form of natural selection, come in a wide variety of bright colours.

This has been questioned by later scholars as quite a stretch for Wallace, who in this particular instance abandoned his normally strict " adaptationist " agenda in asserting that the highly intricate and developed forms such as a peacock's tail resulted by sheer "physiological processes" that were somehow not at all subjected to adaptation. Apart from Wallace, a number of scholars considered the role of sexual selection in human evolution controversial.

Darwin was accused of looking at the evolution of early human ancestors through the moral lens of the 19th century Victorian society. Joan Roughgarden , citing many elements of sexual behaviour in animals and humans that cannot be explained by the sexual-selection model, suggested that the function of sex in human evolution was primarily social.

Warning display uses virtually the same arsenal of visual, audio, olfactory and behavioural features as sexual selection. According to the principle of aposematism warning display , to avoid costly physical violence and to replace violence with the ritualised forms of display, many animal species including humans use different forms of warning display: visual signals contrastive body colours, eyespots , body ornaments, threat display and various postures to look bigger , audio signals hissing , growling , group vocalisations , drumming on external objects , olfactory signals producing strong body odors , particularly when excited or scared , behavioural signals demonstratively slow walking , aggregation in large groups, aggressive display behaviour against predators and conspecific competitors.

According to Jordania, most of these warning displays were incorrectly attributed to the forces of sexual selection. While debates on the subject continued, in January Darwin started on another book, using left over material on emotional expressions, which became The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. In recent years controversy also involved the peacock tail, the most famous symbol of the principle of sexual selection.

A seven-year Japanese study of free-ranging peafowl came to the conclusion that female peafowl do not select mates merely on the basis of their trains. Mariko Takahashi found no evidence that peahens expressed any preference for peacocks with more elaborate trains, such as trains having more ocelli, a more symmetrical arrangement or a greater length.

Adeline Loyau and her colleagues responded to Takahashi's study by voicing concern that alternative explanations for these results had been overlooked and that these might be essential for the understanding of the complexity of mate choice. Jordania suggested that peacock's display of colourful and oversize train with plenty of eyespots, together with their extremely loud call and fearless behaviour has been formed by the forces of natural selection not sexual selection , and served as a warning aposematic display to intimidate predators and rivals.

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In January , Thomas Huxley 's former disciple, the anatomist St. George Mivart , had published On the Genesis of Species as a critique of natural selection. In an anonymous Quarterly Review article, he claimed that the Descent of Man would unsettle "our half educated classes" and talked of people doing as they pleased, breaking laws and customs. In September, Huxley wrote a cutting review of Mivart's book and article and a relieved Darwin told him "How you do smash Mivart's theology As began, Mivart politely inflamed the argument again, writing "wishing you very sincerely a happy new year" while wanting a disclaimer of the "fundamental intellectual errors" in the Descent of Man.

This time, Darwin ended the correspondence. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Darwinism. See also: Sexual selection in human evolution and Sexual selection. Further information: Darwin from Descent of Man to Emotions. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.

June Darwin Online.


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Retrieved 6 April — via Project Gutenberg. Economics in the Shadows of Darwin and Marx. Edward Elgar Publishing. Some of these, for instance the Negro and European, are so distinct that, if specimens had been brought to a naturalist without any further information, they would undoubtedly have been considered by him as good and true species. Nevertheless all the races agree in so many unimportant details of structure and in so many mental peculiarities, that these can be accounted for only through inheritance from a common progenitor; and a progenitor thus characterised would probably have deserved to rank as man.

It must not be supposed that the divergence of each race from the other races, and of all the races from a common stock, can be traced back to any one pair of progenitors. The New York Times. Retrieved 10 January Retrieved 30 October Los Angeles: University of California Press. Music in Human Evolution.


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The descent of man and selection in relation to sex, Vol. 1, (2nd ed.).

Making Modern Science. The University of Chicago Press. Cronin, Helena The ant and the peacock: altruism and sexual selection from Darwin to today. Secondary sexual characters in the lower classes of the animal kingdom; Secondary sexual characters of insects; Insects continued -Order lepidoptera. Darwin's two-volume work on the area of sexual selection across the whole of the animal kingdom. Ta kontakt med Kundesenteret.

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The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex - Charles Darwin - Google книги

Les mer. Part 1 of 3 of book on evolutionary theory by English naturalist Charles Darwin, first published in It was Darwin's second great book on evolutionary theory, following his work, On The Origin of Species. In The Descent of Man, Darwin applies evolutionary theory to human evolution, and details his theory of sexual selection. The book discusses many related issues, including evolutionary psychology, evolutionary ethics, differences between human races, differences between sexes, the superiority of men to women, and the relevance of the evolutionary theory to society.

People wishing to follow-up the references will find them all given in the text version. Life and Letters of Charles Darwin. With an Autobiographical Chapter. Edited by Francis Darwin.