Right after the successful completion of the setup wizard, install all basic Android SDK tools, but none of the platform specific tooling. The next step consists of launching the SDK Manager. The Windows installer offers to do just that from the final page of the wizard. See Figure 1. In addition to the name and location of the project, indicate the minimum SDK required to run the application. The content in the drop-down list of Figure 2 depends on the platforms installed through the SDK Manager.
In the next of the wizard, IntelliJ IDEA asks you to indicate the package name and how you want to debug the application. See Figure 3. The package name should be in the form com. The com.
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To test the application, you have two equally good options: the emulator or real devices. You might want to start with the emulator and move to one particular device as the app gets stable and richer in functions. Ideally, before releasing any product, you should test it on multiple devices with different characteristics. From the perspective of an IDE, this means having two build configurations ready, one where the target device is the emulator and one where the target device is any compatible device connected through a USB port. An AVD is just a configuration file through which you define hardware and software options for the emulator to mimic.
In addition to the AVD settings, IntelliJ also offers a few parameters through the Emulator tab of the dialog box used for editing build configurations. For example, you can set the network latency parameter to simulate a 3G connection to the Internet from within the phone emulator. An Android project is primarily a Java project, so it shares many of the classic folders you find in a Java project such as src , libs , and res.
The src folder contains the source code whereas the libs folder lists external libraries. The res folder contains all external resources used by the application, such as images, layout files, strings, and menus. The res folder usually contains subfolders for drawable, layout, values, and menu.
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The drawable folder contains all of the images referenced from the application. The layout folder contains files used to define the structure of views.
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You can also edit manually in a text editor. The values folder contains XML files that declare strings, graphical styles, and colors. The menu folder contains the definition of menus to be used by the application. A menu is expressed as an XML file and consists of a list of items, each of which indicates a unique ID, a reference to a string in the values folder and reference to an icon in the drawable folder. In an Android application, you may also find an optional folder named assets for storing resources.
The main difference between the assets and the res folder is that any content placed in assets is not going to be pre-processed by the Android framework. The benefit of resource pre-processing is that the resource is abstracted to a generic ID, which enables the underlying Android platform to serve the most appropriate version of that resource based on languages, OS versions, and screen size or orientation.
The content in assets is provided as-is and the developer is responsible for reading it programmatically. Android resources can be grouped together on a per-device basis so that you can have different resources selected for different classes of devices. In Figure 5 , you see several drawable-xxx and values-xxx folders. The xxx suffix indicates the range of devices that the drawables and values are for. For example, drawable-hdpi indicates that the content will only be used for devices that Android determines to have a high density.
Android defines four generalized density values: ldpi low , mdpi medium , hdpi high , and xhdpi extra high. In this case, Android offers four generalized sizes: small, normal, large, and xlarge. Note that with Android 3.
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An example is the values-swdp-land folder in Figure 5. The folder contains values to be used on devices with a minimum screen width of pixels and in landscape mode. As mentioned, in the src folder, you can find all of the Java classes that make up the application. In Android development, an activity is a plain Java class and an essential component of any Android application. The class extends the base Activity class and overrides the method onCreate that is called when the activity is first created. The setContentView method sets the user interface of the activity.
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The expression points to the content of the main. In an Android application, you will have one activity for each screen presented by the application. So far, the application consists of a single activity, but some settings in the manifest file mark this activity as the entry point of the app. A manifest file is required for every Android application. The manifest presents information about the application to the Android operating system, including the entry point in the code required to launch the app, and permissions the user must have in order to run the app e.
As a developer, you take the manifest file as it comes out of the initial wizard and edit it. First, you need to access programmatic functions that require permissions from the user, such as local storage, sensors, and Internet. Another edit to make is when you add a new activity to your codebase. Any activity class, in fact, must be declared in the manifest. The following code snippet shows the declaration that turns an activity into the entry point in the code:. In the manifest, you also need to have an explicit indication of the minimum Android SDK required to run the app.
You use an integer to indicate an Android SDK. In the example, the number 8 refers to Android 2. At this stage, the user interface UI of the sample application is based on a very simple layout. The UI layout is defined in the main.
The code snippet below shows the XML used to define the layout: it contains only a label of text. The UI designer is like many other graphical editors: it allows you to drag widgets from a list onto the drawing surface. The palette of widgets offered by IntelliJ IDEA covers basic and custom widgets and is good for most common activities.
Through the UI editor, you can add an image view and a label. Each widget can have a long list of properties. In particular, Android requires that every visual element has width and height explicitly specified. Two common topics related to the graphical layout are images and localizable text. Images should be added to the any of the drawable folders; you add multiple images if you are using multiple resolutions. Localizable text goes in a strings. To localize the text, you add a values-xx folder where xx is the two-letter code of the culture, for example, values-es.
To add a bit of action, you first need to be able to reference widgets programmatically and add event handlers. Unlike what you see in Visual Studio and. You need to ask the activity class for a reference for any widget behind a specific ID. Discounts: Include Coupons Include Offers member of ISBN NET developer, this book will take you straight to the heart of what you can get out of this new technology.
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